Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited (DEL.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Financial sector has released it’s 2016 interim results for the half year.For more information about Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited (DEL.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited (DEL.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited (DEL.mu) 2016 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileGrit Real Estate Income Group Limited is a property investment company that is particularly interested in African real estate assets. The company mainly deals with US dollar and Euro denominated medium to long term leases with high quality global graded tenants. Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited also operates in Morocco. Mozambique, Mauritius, Kenya and Zambia. Grit Real Estate Income Group Limited has a primary listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, and a secondary listing on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Africa Prudential Registrars Plc (AFRIPR.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Financial sector has released it’s 2017 interim results for the first quarter.For more information about Africa Prudential Registrars Plc (AFRIPR.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Africa Prudential Registrars Plc (AFRIPR.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Africa Prudential Registrars Plc (AFRIPR.ng) 2017 interim results for the first quarter.Company ProfileAfrica Prudential Registrars Plc is a financial services institution in Nigeria providing share registration services for investors, businesses and institutions. The company offers a range of other services which includes maintaining registers, paying dividends and interest on investments, issuing shares and debenture certificates, managing shareholder enquiries, managing scrip and right issues for clients as well as IPOs, Right Issues and State government bonds. Africa Prudential Registrars are leaders in the field of automation and have pioneered innovative solutions that have transformed how shares are managed on the African continent. The company’s head office is based in Lagos, Nigeria. Africa Prudential Registrars Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Access Bank Limited (ACCESS.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2019 presentation results for the third quarter.For more information about Access Bank Limited (ACCESS.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Access Bank Limited (ACCESS.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Access Bank Limited (ACCESS.ng) 2019 presentation results for the third quarter.Company ProfileAccess Bank Plc is a leading financial institution offering banking products and services for the retail, private, corporate and institutional and non-institutional sectors in Africa and Europe. The company offers solutions for corporate and investment banking, commercial banking, personal banking and business banking. In addition to transactional banking, Access Bank Plc offers cash management and treasury services, project and structured finance, supply chain and trade finance as well as insurance, brokerage services, liquidity management and debt management programmes. The company was established in 1989 and has grown its national and international footprint to approximately 300 branches. Access Bank Plc’s head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Access Bank Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Warren Gatland’s side will face the Brave Blossoms before their tour to South Africa next year British & Irish Lions to play JapanThe British & Irish Lions will play Japan at BT Murrayfield next year before they depart for their tour of South Africa.This is the first time the Lions have faced Japan and the match will take place on Saturday 26 June, with the Vodafone Lions 1888 Cup on offer for the winners.With the 2020-21 Gallagher Premiership final also due to take place that day, Lions head coach Warren Gatland will likely be without his full squad for the Test but it does provide an opportunity for players to get game time ahead of the eight-match tour to South Africa.Related: Schedule for 2021 Lions tour to South AfricaJapan impressed at last year’s World Cup, where they reached the quarter-finals for the first time and Gatland is expecting a fast-paced Test next summer.“We saw Japan play some excellent rugby during the World Cup and they will come to Edinburgh fully-motivated to win,” said Gatland.“They are a talented side who play high-tempo rugby, so it’ll be a good challenge for us ahead of the tour, and a chance for the match-day squad to put their hands up for Test selection.” In the diary: The Lions will face Japan at Murrayfield next June Can’t get to the shops? You can download the digital edition of Rugby World straight to your tablet or subscribe to the print edition to get the magazine delivered to your door.Follow Rugby World on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. Japan coach Jamie Joseph has described the fixture as “a truly a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for our players”.This will be only the third Test match that the Lions have played on home soil, after the fixtures against a Rest of the World XV in 1986 and Argentina in 2005.Tickets will go on pre-sale on Tuesday 3 November, but supporters are able to register their interest at lionsrugby.com/Vodafone-1888-Cup from today.Lions managing director Ben Calveley said: “One of our objectives is to give Warren and the playing squad as much meaningful preparation as possible before departing on tour, so we are delighted to have agreed this fixture.“A Lions Test is one of the most iconic events in world sport, but a huge number of fans from the home nations never get the chance to see one live. The Vodafone Lions 1888 Cup match will give even more supporters the opportunity to be part of the next chapter in Lions history.“It will be an ‘I was there’ moment, against an entertaining and highly-respected opposition.” LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS
Please enter your name here Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here From the St. John’s River Water Management District Today, the St. Johns River Water Management District joins other organizations to raise awareness for protecting groundwater supplies and quality during Protect Your Groundwater Day.“The main source of water for most of northeast and central Florida comes from underground aquifers, primarily the Floridan aquifer, which is limited,” said St. Johns River Water Management District Executive Director Dr. Ann Shortelle. “We remain dedicated to using data-driven science to safeguard future supplies, while recognizing the important role of water conservation to ensure its efficient use.”Residents looking to do their part to help sustain our water supply have a number of actions they can take to make a difference. At the core of achieving our water supply goals is water conservation.A home water use assessment is available online for residents to test the water quality and learn about how much water they are using and where they can most easily cut back.A waterwise landscape plant database available online can help guide homeowners as they replant their gardens to choose plants that can thrive in our current climate with limited watering.By following watering restrictions residents limit their amount of outdoor water use, which accounts for nearly half of all residential water use!Protecting water quality and water supply is central to the district’s work. The district regularly publishes research, data and maps online to encourage understanding of sustainable use of Florida’s water.The district’s water supply planning program works to plan for meeting future demands while protecting water resources. Water use statistics and trends are available at www.sjrwmd.com/documents/water-supply/#water-use-data.A continuous water quality monitoring program provides data that enables the district to make resource decisions based on accurate and timely information. Water acidity, clarity, dissolved oxygen and temperature data for water bodies throughout the district are available at www.sjrwmd.com /data/water-quality.Other resources that provide tips on saving water indoors and outdoors are online at www.sjrwmd.com/water-conservation.About the St. Johns River Water Management DistrictSt. Johns River Water Management District staff are committed to ensuring the sustainable use and protection of water resources for the benefit of the people of the district and the state of Florida. The St. Johns River Water Management District is one of five districts in Florida managing groundwater and surface water supplies in the state. The district encompasses all or part of 18 northeast and east-central Florida counties. District headquarters are in Palatka, and staff also are available to serve the public at service centers in Maitland, Jacksonville and Palm Bay. LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 Please enter your comment! Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate TAGSSt. Johns River Water Management District Previous articleUpdating: Hurricane Irma strengthens to Category 5!Next articleApopka readies itself for Category 5 Hurricane Irma Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR The Anatomy of Fear
Photographs Year: Projects Russia ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/963140/residential-building-in-sadovye-kvartaly-speech Clipboard Residential Building in Sadovye Kvartaly / SPEECHSave this projectSaveResidential Building in Sadovye Kvartaly / SPEECH Apartments Manufacturers: Hagemeister Architects In Charge:Sergei Tchoban, Sergey Kuznetsov, Igor ChlenovClient :INTECOCity:MoskvaCountry:RussiaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoRecommended ProductsMetallicsSculptformClick-on Battens in Ivanhoe ApartmentsMetallicsKriskadecorMetal Fabric – Outdoor CladdingMetallicsStudcoWall Stop Ends – EzyCapLouversAccoyaAccoya® Wood for Shutters and LouvresText description provided by the architects. Sadovye Kvartaly is a huge residential project with four city blocks standing around a recreated pond. A preserved brick manufacturing building suggested the principal material used in the construction of the new houses – brick. Realization of the project has involved several leading Moscow architecture firms, including SPEECH.Save this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoSave this picture!Floor planSave this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoOur firm has designed a residential building with an original corrugated façade which is a modern interpretation of how to use traditional brick. The house is part of the development of block No. 3 and is connected to the two houses closest to it, built according to the projects of other bureaus, by a stylobate part.Save this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoSave this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoSave this picture!SectionSave this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoThe first two floors of the 13-storey residential building are occupied by a two-light entrance lobby, which is partially planned to be used as a multi-format public and cultural space (with the possibility of hosting temporary exhibitions and a library). The 11 upper floors are occupied by 86 apartments, each of which has received a two-way orientation.Save this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoSave this picture!© Dmitry ChebanenkoProject gallerySee allShow lessNovacella Abbey Museum Addition / MoDusArchitectsSelected ProjectsReinventing the Platform Lift as a Design Statement for Accessibility at Home: AritcoArticlesProject locationAddress:Ulitsa Usacheva, Moskva, RussiaLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Area: 15200 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Architects: SPEECH Area Area of this architecture project CopyApartments•Moskva, Russia Residential Building in Sadovye Kvartaly / SPEECH Photographs: Dmitry Chebanenko Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project “COPY” “COPY” ArchDaily CopyAbout this officeSPEECHOfficeFollowProductBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingApartmentsMoskvaOn FacebookRussiaPublished on June 10, 2021Cite: “Residential Building in Sadovye Kvartaly / SPEECH” 10 Jun 2021. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website Community News COVID-19 Cases Remain Lowered, But Officials Warn Surge May Still Be to Come 6 new infections reported in Pasadena By BRIAN DAY Published on Wednesday, September 16, 2020 | 5:20 pm Community News STAFF REPORT Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy HerbeautyThese Lipsticks Are Designed To Make Your Teeth Appear Whiter!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Celebrity Body Parts Insured For Ridiculous AmountsHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyYou Can’t Go Past Our Healthy Quick RecipesHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty8 Easy Exotic Meals Anyone Can MakeHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Lies You Should Stop Telling Yourself Right NowHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyVictoria’s Secret Model’s Tips For Looking Ultra SexyHerbeautyHerbeauty Business News Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Donald CommunityPCC- COMMUNITYVirtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPasadena Public WorksPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Subscribe More Cool Stuff Top of the News Pasadena hela officials reported six new COVID-19 infections and no new deaths on Wednesday, as officials waited to see whether a predicted post-Labor Day weekend viral surge would materialize.“We continue to see a lower count of cases than what we were expecting after the Labor Day weekend,” city spokeswoman Lisa Derderian said.Tuesday marked nine days since Labor Day, and 11 days since the preceding Saturday, which kicked off the three-day weekend.Public health officials have warned that during past holiday weekends amid the pandemic, spikes were seen 10 to 14 days later.The possibility that a spike is yet to materialize in the coming days remains, “but we’re hoping we don’t get an increase and maintain our low numbers,” she said.Pasadena average new infections detected daily over the previous week had dropped to 4.6, city data shows.The city’s total infections had reached 2,485, and the death toll stood at 121.Huntington Hospital reported treating 30 COVID-19 patients on Wednesday, with 50 tests pending.But hospital spokeswoman Dorey Huston said the increase did not reflect a sudden spike in suspected infections.Patients are required to undergo COVID-19 screening before undergoing surgical procedures, she said. The figure primarily reflected patients with upcoming surgeries scheduled.Los Angeles County public health officials reported 1,148 new detected infections and 31 additional fatalities on Wednesday, bringing the county’s totals to 256,148 COVID-19 cases and 6,303 deaths.“The number of new cases has steadily decreased through August and September. Last week the average daily number of cases was 800, compared with over 2,000 just a month ago,” the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health said in a written statement.But the optimism came with a word of caution.“Public Health will continue to watch this indicator closely because it may be artificially low due to reduced testing numbers seen over the last two weeks,” the statement added.The county’s average positivity rate over the prior week had dropped to 3%, down from 5% in mid-August, officials said.The county’s overall positivity rate remained at 10%, with more than 2.4 million tests administered.The L.A. County Department of Public Health said 804 people were hospitalized with COVID-19 in the county on Wednesday, with 30% of them being treated in intensive care units.“We are hoping that over the Labor Day Holiday everyone continued to do their best to reduce transmission so we don’t experience another surge in hospitalizations a few weeks from now,” the county statement said.The California Department of Public Health announced 2,950 new infections and 164 deaths on Wednesday.The state had seen a total of 762,963 cases of COVID-19 and 14,615 fatalities since the start of the pandemic.The state’s average positivity rate in the week prior, as well as the 14-day rate, were both at 3.6%, the CDPH said in a written statement.As of Wednesday, L.A. County accounted for 34% of California’s COVID-19 diagnoses and 43% of the state’s fatalities. Community News STAFF REPORT First Heatwave Expected Next Week 18 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it CITY NEWS SERVICE/STAFF REPORT Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday Make a comment EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena
Email Linkedin NewsLocal NewsI’m doing it for all those who couldn’t take it any moreBy admin – October 30, 2012 686 Facebook Previous articleLife goes on the barricadesNext articleDundon girlfriend cleared of intimidation admin Advertisement THE tea cups and sandwich wrappers are being cleared away as men pull on outdoor coats and put the security cabin to rights. Up in the log cabin, some of the night shift are stretching and waking, while others arrive in cars at the gate, ready to relieve those who have been on duty all day. It could be the changeover on a factory production line but it is, in fact, the polar opposite. These people are giving up their time to stand guard at the home of Seamus Sherlock and his family in Feohanagh to prevent the Bank of Scotland executing an eviction order.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up By the time Limerick Post readers see this article, the Sherlock family will have been barricaded into their home for 70 days.Seamus started the ‘Life After Debt’ advocacy and support group after he lost his income overnight five years ago.“My business was cutting turf and I supplied more than 400 people but in one stroke of a pen, the bog was closed and I was out of business,” he told the Limerick Post.Seamus never received any compensation for his loss and got into trouble with paying the mortgage on the family home.‘There was nothing I could do at the time but soon afterwards my son started working the farm and we started to get back on our feet. Now we have a five-figure sum sitting in my solicitor’s office and the bank are refusing to take it. I’m not looking for any write-down – all I want is a longer term to pay the mortgage”.When the eviction order arrived on his doorstep, Seamus called his children together and told them he wanted to fight. “They all said we should do it. We have no choice. We have nowhere to go. We will resist peacefully if they come to put us out but they will have to beat me to make me leave and they’ll have to kill me to stop me coming back.No sooner had Seamus rolled the silage bales in front of his home to form a barricade than neighbours began arriving with gifts of food. Within days of his stand being first reported in the media, friends, people he had helped through ‘Life After Debt” and complete strangers started turning up to volunteer for guard duty at the gates.“The support has been phenomenal. This is the Ireland of concern and community that our parents told us about. People have volunteered to stand with me, neighbours have been bringing boxes of groceries, every morning and evening people turn up with hot food for the lads at the gate. I’ve been given a log cabin that sleeps twelve people; a security hut for the lads on duty; eight two-way radios, heaters and a generator – all donated by companies and people who want us to continue making this stand. I have to say a huge ‘thank you’ to everyone”.Seamus says that while he is standing up to the eviction order for his own and his family’s sake, he is also doing it “for all those who couldn’t take it anymore.“There are so many people going into the river because they are just crushed by what is happening. I’m doing of for them because they can’t speak for themselves anymore”. Twitter Print WhatsApp
By News Highland – November 13, 2012 Pinterest Google+ Facebook Previous articleStudent grant delays to get Oireachtas hearingNext articlePower returns to most following ‘major fault’ News Highland Tainaste and MP take up Malin Head Coastguard cause Watch: The Nine Til Noon Show LIVE WhatsApp The Tainaste is to raise the future of the Malin Head Coastguard station with the Minister responsible for Coastguard Services, Leo Varadkar.That is according to East Derry MLA John Dallat who met with Eamon Gilmore at the weekend.Fears remains over the future of the Malin Head station which is recommended for closure in a report being considered by the Government.Mike Penning MP, a former Minister for Transport in Westminster, is also said to back the retention of Malin Head Coastguard station.John Dallat says Mr Penning has an historic interest in the Donegal station:[podcast]http://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/johnrawMALIN.mp3[/podcast] Dail to vote later on extending emergency Covid powers PSNI and Gardai urged to investigate Adams’ claims he sheltered on-the-run suspect in Donegal HSE warns of ‘widespread cancellations’ of appointments next week Twitter WhatsApp Twitter RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Google+ Facebook Pinterest Man arrested in Derry on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences released Dail hears questions over design, funding and operation of Mica redress scheme News
ColumnsIntegration Of Ayurveda Into Modern Medicine: Mixopathy- The Unrealistic And Unguided Mixing Dr. Adv. Pauly Mathew Muricken16 Dec 2020 10:49 PMShare This – xThe recent changes brought into the Indian Medicine Central Council(Post Graduate Ayurveda Education)Regulations, 2016 framed in exercise of the powers conferred by Section 36(1)(i), (j) and (k) of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 and in supersession of the Indian Medicine Central Council(Post Graduate Education) Regulations, 1979 and the Indian Medicine Central…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe recent changes brought into the Indian Medicine Central Council(Post Graduate Ayurveda Education)Regulations, 2016 framed in exercise of the powers conferred by Section 36(1)(i), (j) and (k) of Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 and in supersession of the Indian Medicine Central Council(Post Graduate Education) Regulations, 1979 and the Indian Medicine Central Council(Post Graduate Ayurveda Education) Regulations, 2012 has sparked controversy and confusion among medicos and other stakeholders in the health sector in the country. The changes have been notified by the Central Council of Indian Medicine, a statutory body, with the sanction of the Central Government. Though the Amendment to the Regulations notified by the Gazette Notification dated November 20, 2020 have been made as an attempt to regulate the education of post-graduate course in Ayurveda system of medicine, the manner in which it has been worked out shows that what it actually intends to achieve is nothing but the slow integration of Ayurveda into Modern Medicine at least to the limited extent, a purpose beyond the reach of the rulemaking power of the regulator, as the Post Graduate Ayurveda Education Regulations or its parent enactment, namely, Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 do not empower the rulemaking authority to adopt such a course to integrate one system of medicine with the other, when the knowledge, training, application, exposure, approach and path of both systems are clearly exclusive, varying, distinct and separate. In Ayurveda, healing is facilitated with the amalgamation of elements of nature, whereas in Allopathy, the disease is primarily treated and managed with the help of drugs. Section 36(1) of the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 deals with the power of the Central Council of Indian Medicine to make regulations generally to carry out the purposes of the Act. Under Section 36(2), regulations thus framed require the approval of both Houses of Parliament. Parliament can approve, disapprove or make modifications to the regulations. The purpose of the Act is to facilitate constitution of a Central Council of Indian Medicine and maintenance of Central Register of Indian Medicine and its connected matters. The Act inter alia envisages detailed provisions regarding composition of the Central Council and its committees; permission for establishment of new medical institutions, courses etc.; recognition of medical qualifications; withdrawal of recognition; prescribing minimum standards of education in Indian medicine; professional conduct; privileges, etc. Section 2(e) of the Act defines Indian Medicine as including Ayurveda, Siddha. Section 36(1)(i) of the Act authorizes the Central Council to prescribe regulations on the courses and period of study and of practical training to be undertaken, the subjects of examination and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained, in any University, Board or medical institutions for grant of recognized medical qualifications. Similarly, Section 36(1)(j) of the Act empowers the Council to make regulations on the standards of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for education in Indian medicine; and sub-clause(k) enables rule making for the conduct of professional examinations, qualifications of examiners and the conditions of admission to such examinations. But the issue precisely raised is where lies the power of the Central Council to prescribe training conditions in surgical procedures in such a manner as to enable the PG scholars in Ayurveda in the mentioned disciplines to acquaint with and perform the listed surgical procedures independently. A casual exercise, not a cautious choice: Every rule making exercise has to pass the constitutional muster of rationality, legality, propriety and proportionality. The validity of the rule making power has to be determined not only with reference to its object, but also looking at its effect on the affected class. Rule making power has to be harmonized with the principles of natural justice and due process in its substantive and procedural essence. The instant changes appear to have been introduced in a unilateral manner without effective consultation with the stakeholders including the general public, medico-legal, insurance, etc. The changes seem to have been brought in a mechanical manner, without proper application of mind. No legislative authorization could be traced to the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 for integrating one system of medicine with the other. In the legal context, one cannot be faulted for thinking that it is a colourable exercise of legislative power or delegated power, apparently for the reason that relevant considerations have escaped from the zone of consideration of the rule making body before introducing such paradigm shift in approach, which has far reaching consequences not only on the medical practitioners, but on the public at large who are the ultimate beneficiaries of the different systems of medicine. Regulation 10 of the Indian Medicine Central Council (Post Graduate Ayurveda Education) Regulations,2016 deals with method of training. The provision which has invited the present controversy, namely Regulation 10(9) was added to the Regulations by the recent amendment and it states during the period of study, the Post Graduate scholar of Shalya and Shalakya shall be practically trained to acquaint with as well as to independently perform the listed activities so that after completion of PG Degree, he is able to perform the mentioned procedures independently. Under the various categories so left open for independent surgical pursuit by Ayurveda PG Graduates of the above mentioned specialties come various surgical procedures forming part of General Surgery, Eye, ENT related surgeries and Dental procedures. Out of the delineated surgical procedures, 39 procedures form part of general surgery and 19 procedures involve the eye, ear, nose, throat and tooth. The listed procedures include removal of metallic and non-metallic foreign bodies from non-vital organs, excision of simple cyst or benign tumors of non-vital organs, excision/amputation of gangrene, traumatic wound management, foreign body removal from stomach, squint surgery, cataract surgery, functional endoscopic sinus surgery, etc. The 58 categories of surgical procedures thus made mention of in the amended regulations speaks in volume the sudden twist in law which may adversely affect the interest of the practitioners in modern medicine and goes against their legitimate expectations. But the ultimate question is whether the changes have constitutional footing and what is the immediate need and reasons for the changes. Whether the country and its people can approve it? Policy and policy matters are the domains of the Government and the ruler. But if the change in PG Medical Education policy is contrary to public interest and the health and well-being of the public at large, it calls for retrospection. The unique right to healthcare and treatment: Right to healthcare and treatment has passed through different stages of evolution to reach the present state of recognition and justiciability as a fundamental right. Its development is traceable from jurisprudential and international perspectives and both have cast a positive obligation on the State to protect peoples’ health and public health. Yet, the often raised question is whether the ‘State obligation’ is something that can easily be knocked out. Legalist thoughts would explain that citizen’s life means not mere life, but living well. Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness are self-evident eternal truths. It is to secure the same that governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from consent of the governed. Constitutional limitations exist on the exercise of powers of each of the organs set up by the Constitution to make it enforceable by the Courts and to invalidate legislative and the executive despotism and its in-built tendency to authoritarianism. Inalienable and sacred individual rights of the people such as right to health, treatment, medicare and its access which are far superior to civil rights will have to be duly protected in the arms of the State. Rulers and lawmakers must do good to the sick, ill-nourished, infirm and the disabled. Conferment of the right to health and Medicare on the subjects which is more important than the other rights mean a corresponding duty on the State to effectuate the exercise of the right, which means taking preventive and curative measures by the State. Consequently, State may need to refrain from conduct injurious to the enjoyment of physical and mental health of its people. From human right to fundamental right: The right to life is the most fundamental of all the rights and it is the very core of humanity. It is therefore, being considered as the sanctum sanctorum of human rights. It is the right from which all other rights stem out. Life means the state of being alive as a human being. It also means the qualities, events and experiences of human existence. Aristotle, while explaining the origin and purpose of “State”, observed that State came into being for fulfillment of bare needs of men and continues in existence for the sake of good life. Hobbes also justified man’s natural right to life. The desire to stay alive is man’s paramount wish, and the one that demands from other, their most unfailing respect. Equally important was that Locke also acknowledged that “life, liberty and estate” of one person can be limited only to make effective the equally valid claims of another person to the same right. Emphasizing on the role of the State, Rousseau justified the existence of the State for protecting the rights of the subjects, the most important of which being the right to life. It is the heart of all fundamental rights and has received expanded meaning from time to time at national and international levels. Right to health and Medicare – Evolution from international instruments: A facet of the right to health finds a place in Article 25(1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. Article 25(2) of the Universal Declaration emphasizes on the protection of motherhood and childhood by declaring that motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. The Preamble to the Constitution of World Health Organization, which was drafted more or less during the same time as that of the Universal Declaration states that enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political, economic or social condition. Article 12 of the ICESCR forms the international base for the emergence of the right to health. It recognized explicitly the right of everyone to enjoy the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health. Tackling health challenges through optimized health service: It is the duty of the State to provide optimized health service so that everyone can realize the right to health. This must be achieved by assuring to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness. States must equally act to enhance the welfare of children in general, such as reduction in still birth rate and infant mortality and health development of the child. It is also the obligation of the State to prevent and treat epidemic, endemic, occupational and other diseases. Thus, a multi-faceted approach to health has to be shown by the State. It means creating duties under State responsibility to contribute to the satisfaction of the individual aspirations of citizens. Life is not mere living but living in health. The health of the individual, as of nations is of primary concern to all of us. Health is not absence of illness but a glowing vitality, a feeling of wholeness with a capacity for continuous intellectual and spiritual growth. State must recognize health as a public good. Right to healthcare embraces right to health services in relation to disease prevention, health promotion, therapeutic services and rehabilitation. Health basically entails four essential elements, viz., availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of health facilities. It is thus clear that State has certain specific obligations to fulfill in reference to the right to health which are in the nature of obligations to respect, protect and fulfill. The obligation to protect means that States are required to take action to prevent third parties from interfering with the Constitutional guarantee. This includes a responsibility to ensure that harmful or traditional practices which relate to any system of medicine do not impinge on the healthy development of women. The obligation to fulfill requires States to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative, budgetary, judicial, promotional and other measures to realize fully the right to health. The obligation consists of three specific elements, viz., the obligation to adopt positive measures capable of assuring individuals and communities to enjoy fully the right to health; the obligation to provide a specific right guaranteed in the ICESCR; and the obligation to promote, calling on States to undertake action that create, maintain and restore the health of citizens. Right to access to health as a social right: The crowning glory of Vincent Panikulangara decision was that health was seen by the Court as part and parcel of life. The activist attitude shown by the court in Consumer Education Research Centre case should be exalted. The Court had definitely played a decisive role in sketching the contours of the right to health. Judiciary acknowledged that a vibrant constitutional synthesis exists between social justice and individual freedom and in that process, it elevated right to health to the status of fundamental right. In the process, it has articulated access to public health also as part of Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The expanded meaning of right to life is wholly justified, for without health of a person being protected and his well-being taken care of, it would be impossible for him to enjoy other fundamental rights in a positive manner. A change without jurisprudential footing: The legal distribution of public power consists ultimately in a dynamic settlement. In the end, it is not a matter of what it is, but of what ought to be. The journey to find it is a search for principle, not the unfolding of a rule book. Education should be used cautiously as an instrument to change the rules relating to the game of life. In the attempt to preserve the quality of life, apart from the jurisprudential values, we should also follow the community values and heritage of Indian culture to make living healthy and productive and to allow peace and prosperity to prevail over mankind. State should not evade the fulfillment of the minimum obligation in relation to health and medical care. Public interest is the paramount law. Right to health is a composite right which means right to highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, human right to equal access to adequate healthcare and health related services. Medical treatment should be accessible, affordable and qualitative. This cannot be compromised. Modern healthcare should embrace the best technologies and adopt best practices, without waiving its identities. Mixopathy, the slow mixing of different forms of medical practices and education is not good for the country and its people. Its implications on code of ethics and preservation of life cannot be lightly viewed. If the patient suffers infection or goes blind due to mixopathy, whom to be blamed – Whether the system permitting it or the medical professional performing it? Surgery involves harmonious fusion of knowledge, experience and skill. Integration of systems cannot bring vitality or vigour to it, nor does it provide required learning and skill for independent pursuit. The dilemma projected by the issue will definitely continue for some time with groups and systems contradicting each other, unless the State appropriately intervenes in public interest and give a quietus to the issue by taking remedial action alleviating the genuine apprehensions of the medicos and other stakeholders including the general public. Ultimately people should be benefited from the treatment methods without risking efficacy and safety. However, the choice is of the lawmakers who must act circumscribed by constitutional limitations and guided exercise of power.Views are personal.(The Author is a practicing Lawyer, a public health law expert, and an adjunct Professor based in Kochi)Next Story